Gorce National Park, established in 1981, is one of 23 national parks on Polish territory.Includes central band Gorce, including massifs and gorca Turbacz. Directorate Gorce National Park is located in the United Poreba.
Even before World War II perceived need to protect the beautiful landscape and natural values of having a large area of the Gorce. In 1927, the owner of these sites - Ludwik Wodzicki of Poreba Great created an area 114 ha nature reserve them. Wladyslaw Orkan. Competent Gorce National Park, however, only created in 1981, initially had a surface of 5,908 ha in 1988, was extended to 6763 acres, later increased its surface yet; status for 2002 is 7030 ha. The oldest religious monument in the chapel Bulandy GPN Glade Jaworzyna Kamienicka.
It is located in 5 municipalities: Mszana Dolna (1161 ha), Niedźwiedź (2,995 ha), Kamienica (1313 ha), Nowy Targ (598 ha), Ochotnica Dolna (963 ha). Most of the area is State owned (6567 ha), the rest is private property (382 ha) and communal (81 ha). The area outside the park are all the highest peaks Turbacz Gorce: Jaworzyna Kamienicka (1288 m), Kiczora (1282 m), Kudłoń (1279 m), Gorc (1228 m) and forehead Turbacz (1258 m).The symbol of the park is a salamander.
The park covers the central and north-eastern part of the Gorce. The highest peak in the park is Jaworzyna Kamienicka (1288 m). Rising quite high altitude peaks Gorce are gentle, dome-shaped, slightly rising above the ridge. Gorce are built from the Carpathian Flysch, which was on the seabed, and then was wypiętrzeniu. Water flowing from the mountains carved deep V-shaped valleys with numerous waterfalls, thresholds and gruzowiskiem large and small boulders. This process continued without interruption since its inception, the mountains, even today. On steep slopes, there are numerous landslides, deep gorges, outcrops and numerous sources. Built with more resistant to weathering gruboławicowych sandstones and conglomerates formed pieces of rock outcrops on the original shapes, such as White Rocks, Kudłoński Baca, Crested Gron.There are several caves, formed mainly by rock movements. The largest of them are outlaws Jama. In the lower forest floor are mainly brown soils, mainly in the upper reglu podsols. The climate is typically mountainous. The top floor of the climate, which is located above 1100 m asl this is a cool climate. The average annual temperature here is +3 ° C, annual rainfall of 1200 mm, and the growing season lasts only 160 days. Of snow in some places reaches 1.5 m in the deep stream valleys in the upper reaches remains a very long time, especially on the northern slopes.
Gorce were found in more than 900 species of vascular plants, 25 species of mosses, 450 species of lichen and 116 species of liverworts, of which approximately 85% of the park and its surroundings. Significant is the share of mountain species, among others: abacus mountain monkshood pockmarked, buttercup platanolistny, love climbing, mountain omieg. There are also 22 species of typical floors of the Alps, for example Kuklík mountain, swamp alpine, alpine timothy. The legally protected plants is 113 taxa. Gorce are characteristic of large forest complexes, occurring in two storeys of vegetation: reglu lower (650-1100 m) and high (above 1100 m asl). Forests are up 95% of the park, many of them are over the age of trees 100 years old. The tree stands are mainly spruce, beech, fir, larch admixture are, elm, ash, maple, alder gray. Are highlighted a lot of forest, including the Carpathian beechwood, beechwood sour mountains, fertile Jedlina spruce-fir forest of the lower and upper montane forest, Carpathian alder and alder swamp. In the undergrowth of the forests are characteristic of those of plant species, such as geranium forest, wild garlic, kokorycz empty, heart-lister, urdzik Carpathian, Alpine Common Room, livestock tubercular, comfrey heart-shaped, common lingonberry, various mosses and ferns. In młakach and ziołoroślach nadpotokowych are: butterbur wyłysiały, Knieć pack, aconite pockmarked, Modrzyk Mountain, parzydło forest, and very rare zarzyczka mountain. In a group of plant communities associated with clearings where there is as many as 130 species associated exclusively with clearings. Hence, it is important to maintain these pastures and to prevent their forest cover. M.in grow here: Jastrzębiec orange, gladiolus dachówkowaty, tłustosz vulgaris, the European globe flower, prosienicznik jednogłówkowy, saffron conspiracies and as many as 13 species of the family Orchidaceae, m.in: fragrant orchid długoostrogowa, helleborine, ozorka green, spotted and Broad stoplamek, orchid spherical. Many of these logs is very barren, covered with vegetation, poor habitat, so. "Psiarami" the dog's dope, and kuklikiem dziewięćsił bezłodygowym mountain. On wet sites are kozłkowo-sedge bog-springs, and meadows around them, mostly from the knot wężownikiem Cirsium and carefully meadow.
Large and well-preserved forest areas promote the occurrence of here by large animals, for which elsewhere lacks suitable habitats: wild boar, deer, roe deer, otters, badgers, ermine. Different environment (in addition to the clearing of forests are) conducive to a large diversity of species of fauna of the park. There exists 185 species of vertebrates, of which 21 are in the register of Polish Red Book of Animals. They are: amphibians: Carpathian newt, birds: grouse, white-backed woodpecker, three-toed woodpecker, grouse, lesser spotted eagle owl, Ural owl, pygmy owl, Tengmalm, mammals: dormouse, silvered scotoma, scotoma pozłocisty, brown bear, lesser horseshoe bat , Dewberry, rzęsorek less, lynx, wolf, wild cat. There is a 9 species, 130 bird species (including 100 nesting within the park), 7 species of amphibians. In the streams there are two species of fish: brown trout and bullhead pręgopłetwy. Were found more than 1,000 species of invertebrates, including 23 endemic Carpathian or Carpathian Sudetan. There are numerous species of invertebrates, mountain and boreal (100 species). On the butterfly fauna of large clearings (eg undine admiral, Small Tortoiseshell, nacre larger, beetles and others).